The truth is that most children are not wearing sunglasses. Studies show that children are not wearing protective sun protection as needed. Over 20 months of observation of over 5,000 subjects on sunny days in Hawaii, suggested that only 12% of children wore sunglasses. Forty two percent of the adults that were observed wore sunglasses. Sunglasses are less and less a luxury and more and more a necessity!





The truth is that you DO have to worry about UV rays when it’s cloudy outside. Even during overcast days, eyes are still exposed to UV rays. More than 90% of the UV rays penetrate through the clouds and can be damaging to your skin and eyes. UV rays also reflect off surfaces that you might not expect. Up to 15% of UV rays reflect off sand. Up to 80% of UV rays reflect off snow while up to 100% of UV rays reflect off water.
Protect your delicate eyes from UV rays by using UV protection in your sunglasses. They are more of a necessity than a luxury and at Dr. Landrio’s office you will find reasonably priced sunglasses for the entire family. Remember: Mention our blog or website and receive a 20% DISCOUNT OFF YOUR SUNGLASS PURCHASE!




Every day thousands of car accidents occur throughout the US for a multitude of reasons. However, and perhaps surprisingly, some studies indicate that as many as half of all traffic accidents involved sun glare as a cause. And while a majority of sun glare accidents occur in the early spring and fall when the sun sets directly west, glare off of icy and snowy roads during the depths of winter are a noticeable threat as well.

Historically, these types of accidents are especially dangerous because they typically occur when the weather is seemingly great and, consequently, drivers are less wary of anything going awry. In fact, many glare accidents involve multiple vehicles for exactly this reason – as was the case of a four-car accident that occurred in the Capital District last fall.

Likewise, glare accidents often involve pedestrians who drivers claim they just “never saw.” Naturally, when the bright sun hits a driver’s windshield at just the right angle, their ability to see a pedestrian in the road is dramatically reduced.

Here are a few tips to reduce the possibility of a mid-winter accident caused by glare:

Be aware! If the sun is bright, heighten your attention to the road, other drivers, and the possibility of pedestrians.
Keep a quality pair of sunglasses accessible in your car.
Avoid using an interior polish on your dashboard that leaves a shiny residue.
Be sure to check your windshield washer fluid on a regular basis.
Clean your windshield frequently.



aaaaaaLight is crucial for our vision. We see objects around us when light bounces off them and enters our eyes. But sometimes, light can be the cause of vision problems when it causes halos or glare.

Halos are bright circles that appear to surround a source of light, such as oncoming car headlights. Glare is light that enters your eye but doesn’t help you see better. Rather, it interferes with your vision.

Glare can be:

Uncomfortable. When you’re trying to see in the presence of a too-bright light, you may squint and try to look away from the light. Your eyes may become teary.

Disabling. Glare can sometimes impair your vision. Light is scattered within the eye and reduces the contrast of images. The loss of contrast is often worse with disabling glare in dim lighting as opposed to bright environments.

Botox FAQs – Part 2


Botox FAQs - Part 2

Q: How many Botox treatments are needed before you see results, does it hurt, and what is the healing period and aftercare?
A: When injected appropriately, the results will be seen after the first treatment. Botox takes two to four days before the muscle weakening effect takes place. The maximum effect occurs at about 10 to 14 days. The effect then lasts up to three months. Pain and discomfort depends on one’s tolerance for needle injections around the face. There is typically no “healing period and aftercare.” Most physicians suggest that the areas of injection should not be rubbed or manipulated for a few hours after the injections.

Q: Who can perform Botox?
A: Botox is a prescription drug. It is administered by a physician or his/her designee (eg, nurse, physician assistant, aesthetician).

Q: I’m 62 years old and Botox isn’t achieving the same results on me as it did in the past. At what point does Botox become ineffective in treating deep-set wrinkles and skin sagging?
A: There is no defined limit to the number of injections one can have. However, the body’s immune system is capable of developing antibodies to the Botox molecule which can render it ineffective at some point in the future.

Q: Is it true that the more I have Botox, the less I need to use it?
A: This has been a topic of discussion among many physicians. Muscles that are not used tend to atrophy and weaken over time. Muscles that have been continually injected with Botox may actually fall into this category and produce a similar effect. This might result in using less Botox.

Q: Is anesthesia used for the procedure? I’m a bit of a chicken when it comes to needles!
A: Some doctors will anesthetize the surface of the skin with a topical anesthetic cream. This makes the stick of the needle much more tolerable.

BOTOX FAQs – Part 1


BOTOX FAQs - Part 1

Q: How does Botox work?
A: Botox works by weakening the muscles into which it is injected. As facial muscles contract, the loose skin above those muscles wrinkles. By weakening the muscles, the wrinkles are reduced.

Q: How long do results last?
A: The effects of Botox can last up to three months.

Q: How safe are wrinkle-relaxing injections? How can you lengthen the effects of Botox? How often should you get Botox after your first injection? How many times can you have Botox?
A: Botox is very safe when injected by experienced physicians. Some oral zinc supplements have been shown to lengthen the effect of Botox. As soon as your wrinkles return, you can have Botox again. There is no defined limit to the number of injections one can have. However, the body’s immune system is capable of developing antibodies to the Botox molecule which can render it ineffective at some point in the future.

Q: Is there a rebound effect when Botox wears off and one does not go for repeat injections?
A: No, the muscle activity should return to its original state when the Botox wears off.

Q: Is Botox painful? I have a very low pain threshold.
A: Botox, itself, is not painful. The pain is associated with the needlestick. The smaller the needle, the better it is tolerated. When a volume of fluid is injected under the skin, it temporarily stimulates some of the nerve fibers. Everyone’s threshold for these occurrences differs from person to person.

“SEE” how nutrition affects eye health


July 2013 — If you’re over age 50, it’s likely your diet doesn’t contain all the nutrients necessary for optimum eye health. That’s the finding of a recent review of nutritional studies performed by researchers at Tufts University and Lesley University.

The pigment in red bell peppers is the source of most of the zeaxanthin used in nutritional supplements.
The review highlighted data from the most recent National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which indicates that most Americans fall below the optimal intake of the following nutrients that research shows can help protect eye health as people age: vitamins C and E, lutein, zeaxanthin, beta-carotene, zinc and omega-3 fatty acids.

The researchers concluded that to limit vision loss within the aging U.S. population, it’s important to increase awareness among Americans, especially those aged 45 to 65, about the importance of nutrients and foods that could help prevent age-related eye disease.

These foods were identified as good sources of nutrients important for eye health:

Vitamin C: citrus fruits, berries, tomatoes and broccoli
Vitamin E: vegetable oils, wheat germ, nuts and legumes
Lutein and zeaxanthin: kale, spinach, broccoli, peas, corn, colored bell peppers
Beta-carotene: carrots, pumpkin, sweet potato and spinach
Zinc: oysters, beef and other meats, nuts
Omega-3 fatty acids: salmon and other cold-water fish